This weakness of the Sultan made people feel most insecure. (iii) Algebra & concept of zero originated here. (i) and (iii)B. Question 1:Which branch of mathematics was called Bijaganita during ancient times? (ii) Two books were translated in Arabic. 2) He was called as Wali for his association with Sufi Gesu Daraz 1463 - 1482. Though the Hindu raja of Karajal accepted the Suzerinty of Delhi, but considering to the amount of loss, it can be described that the Karajal expedition was an unsuccessful adventure of Sultan. This knowledge was used in construction of fire altars. He was also mild before the Mongols. Almost like Don Quixote in Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. He not only saved his capital from the Mongol raids but also ensured the proper administrative rule in both the northern and southern part of the India.His rule is also significant for the introduction… Firoz Shah Bahmani wrote commentaries on Shariat and Quran. Nilakanatha Jyotirvida compiled Tajik, dealing with a large number of Persian technical terms. You can see some Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev sample questions with examples at the bottom of this page. The "Sevuna" (or Seuna) name was brought back into use by John Faithfull Fleet in hi… EduRev is like a wikipedia He was one of the most remarkable rulers of his time. According to him, Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq was disgusted with the life of Delhi because he was getting almost daily many anonymous letters from the people of the city abusing and criticizing him and therefore, he wanted to leave it for good. Production of paer is not known in the ancient India. He spent nearly three lakhs of rupees for this mission. (x) Astrnomy- Feroz Shah Tughlaq established an observatory in Delhi & Feroz Shah Bahamani at Daulatabad. (vi) Indian philosophers Kanada & Pakudha Katyayana (6th century BC) → first coined the idea of atoms & material world being constituted of atoms. unlike his MODERN COUNTER PART, and the ‘TUGHLUQ REFORMS’ were not the part of any Machiavellian-Koudillya thanthra (Chanakya Thanthra ). Complete He abstained himself from drinking in public. The cripple man has put to death while the blind man was tied with the tail of horse and was dragged to Daulatabad where only his one leg reached.”. Peasants were paying the land revenue tax almost the half of the produce since the time of Ala-ud-din Khilzi. 1422 – 1435. The true predecessors of the modern observatory were those established in the Islamic world. He was the eldest son of Ghiyas -ud -Din -Tughlaq, the founder of the Tughluq dynasty.His wife was the daughter of the Raja of Dipalpur. (xii) Sawai Jai Singh MEDICINE (i) Vedic times → Ashwini Kumars were practisioners of medicine & were given divine status. Sir Woolreley Haig has accepted the version of Ibn Batuta, Isami also says that the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq resolved to break-up the power of the citizens of Delhi and therefore, decided to transfer the capital. Both lunar and solar calendars were in use. Some of the Sanskrit terminologies used during ancient times for various parts of the ship are: SHIP BUILDING AND NAVIGATION(i) Sanskrit & Pali literature- mention of ship building & navigation activities. Babar conquered Ibrahim Lodi, the last Delhi Sultanate in 1526, and established the Mughal Empire (known to them as Gurkani). Question 9:The compass of the ship used for navigation in ancient times was called A. Vata VastraB. The object of his taxation policy in the Doab was to increase the military resources. In 1329,[///*** After all Tughluq was educated! Bijaganita was Indian mathematician Bhaskara II's treatise on algebra. This observatory has established nothing new, but it gives a glimpse to the books on which it was built and leaves us amazed. Question 5:Who of the following was an alchemist or chemist by profession in ancient era? Question 3:Consider the following ancient texts: 1. (xii) Mother of Noorjahan- discovered attar of roses. He has also been characterised as a mixture of opposites and a bundle of contradictions. They are the only sources of knowledge of Indian mathematics from the Vedic period. They cannot be further subdivided & are indestructible (modern atomic theory). (v) Medieval period- Narayan Pandit produced works of mathematics like Ganitakaumudi & Bijagan itavatamsa. Ahmad Shah. He had exhibited lack of wisdom and commonsense in these expeditions. Further he had squeezed the treasury by spending a lot of money in his various experiments including the transfer of the capital. The new coins also began to be greatly devalued in the markets. As a result each house turned to be a mint. ***///] . Further, people made payments to the government with new bronze coins and hoarded gold and silver. Bile, 2. He built astronomical observatory at Daulatabad. Nava TalaD. So his transfer of capital with the entire population of Delhi was a blunder. (v) He stated that earth is round & rotates on its own axis. (v) Indian philosophers conceived the idea of splitting an atom. (viii) Faizi, in Akbar’s court also translated Bhaskara’s Beejaganita. Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Biography of Muhammad Bin Tughluq | Tughluq Dynasty | Indian History, Muhammad Tughlaq’s Character was a Mixture of Opposite Traits, Domestic Policies of Muhammad Bin Tughluq | India | Tughluq Dynasty, Biography of Ala-Ud-Din Khilzi (1296—1316), Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. When diplomats met to form the United Nations in 1945, one of the things they discussed was setting up a global health organization. He opened a separate office where a large number of clerks and officers were appointed to do the compilation work. The government treasury was filled with bronze or copper coins. Failure in both the military expeditions as well as his inability to defend the Mongols made him unpopular. During my ten days in the city I took it upon myself to… Question 10:Sushrutasamhita which deals with surgery elaborately discusses? A regular postal service was established between Delhi and Daulatabad. This is (xvii) He related earthquake to influence of plants, behaviour of animals, underground water, undersea activities & unusual cloud formation. Though the attempt to make Devagiri a capital failed, it had a number long-range benefit. As there was shortage of gold and silver coins to serve as a medium of exchange due to the increase in the transactions, the sultan was very right to go for the introduction of a Copper Currency which had the same value as the Silver Coin. Both (a) & (b)ExplanationYukti-kalpataru specifies one class of ships called agramandira (because they had their cabins towards the prows), as eminently adapted for naval warfare (rane kale ghanatyaye). Though the scheme failed disastrously during his reign, yet it had a long term impact. Instead of shifting the en masse population, he could have shifted only the official seats and officers. But while implementing it he did a mistake by not choosing a fertile land for this purpose. He was very kind and generous to the poor and pandits and was very unkind and cruel. It is sure that he had many good ideas, but he had not the capacity to execute them. He was interested also in astronomy, and in 1407 started work on an observatory near Daulatabad. (viii) Apastamba (second century BC) → introduced concepts of practical geometry involving acute angles, obtuse angles & right angles. He was compelled to abdicate in favour of his brother, Ahmad Shah-I, who is called a saint (wali) on account of his association with the famous sufi saint Gesu Daraz. )(iii) Introduced Chakrawat method or cyclic method to solve algebraic equations in his book Lilavati. in the north of Karnataka and the interregnum of Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan(1761-1799 C.E.) (v) Rasachikitsa system- treatment of diseases using mineral medicines. Many people, including religious divines who had gone to Daulatabad, settled down there. (iv) Ships were primarily classified into two classes:- Samanya (Ordinary class)- Vishesha (special class)(v) Ordinary class^for sea voyage & had two types of ships:(a) Dirgha type of ship - long and narrow hull(b) Unnata type of ship - higher hull(vi) As per length & position of cabins, ships were classified into:(a) Sarvamandira vessels - cabins extending from one end of deck to another, used for transportation of royal voyage & horses. (xiii) Rasarnava- Sanskrit text written in medieval period (12th century) & deals with Tantrism (metallic preparations & alchemy). This was not achieved rather he was mistaken by the people as a lunatic person. Takshila and Varanasi emerged as the centres for medicinal learning. In 1328, Daulatabad was completely taken over by the Sultanate of Delhi and was established as a capital of Tughlaq dynasty for the coming two years. of Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev for UPSC, the answers and examples explain the meaning of chapter in the best manner. (iii) Yukti Kalpa Taru- treatise in Sanskrit which deals with the various techniques used in ship building during ancient times. But lb Batuta gives a complete different reason for this transfer of capital. Brahmasputa SiddhantikaD. Jeni PataC. (viii) Best evidences of Indian metallurgy- Iron pillar of Mehrauli in Delhi & idol of Gautama Buddha in Sultanganj, Bihar → have not caught rust. Within a very short time specimens of this coin were found in different parts of the country. The Sultan had set up rest houses on the way to help the travellers. Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq could not stop the forging of new coins. Established after bitter disputes with Jains; Foreign Invasions Mahmud of Ghazni. (ii) Book Siddhanta Shiromani is divided into four sections:- Lilavati (dealing with Arithmetic)- Beejganita (dealing with Algebra)- Goladhyaya (about spheres)- Grahaganita (mathematics of planets. He made all possible efforts to restore them to their houses and supplied all sorts of agricultural helps and loans to revive their economic standard. (vi) Nilakantha Somasutvan wrote Tantrasamgraha, which contains rules of trigonometric functions. The Mongols under their leader Tarma-Shirin Khan had invaded India and plundered upto Multan and Lahore without any opposition. A. SarvamandiraB. A large number of peasants were engaged in the work of cultivation. In the late 1180s, Ballala launched a campaign against Bhillama, and decisively defeated his army at Soratur. But it is a fact that whatever control could be established in the south was because of making Daulatabad the capital. The city was abandoned by the Delhi rulers due to the lack of water supply in the area. He had profound knowledge in logic, philosophy, mathematics astronomy and physical sciences. These coins Barani says, were heaped up outside the fort and remained lying there for many years.- These above experiments not only brought wastage of money but also affected the prestige of the Sultan. In order to bring an improvement in agriculture, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq decided to undertake a number of measures and he, therefore established a department of agriculture called Diwan-i-kohi. Karajal was a Hindu kingdom located between India and China. The Shulba Sutras are part of the larger corpus of texts called the Shrauta Sutras, considered to be appendices to the Vedas. (xi )Court astronomer of Feroz shah Bahmani, Mahendra Suri, invented an astronomical instrument known as Yantaraja. UPSC Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev Summary and Exercise are very important for (vi) Progress from Bronze Age to Iron Age- made great contribution in metallurgy. Bhaskaracharya(i) Leading mathematicians in 12th century AD. In retaliation, Mahmud Ghazni (998-1030 AD) made 17 raids on India; 1001 AD: Mahmud defeated Jayapala and took him prisoner but released. It is the second volume of his main work Siddhānta Shiromani, Sanskrit for "Crown of treatises," alongside Lilavati, Grahaganita and Goladhyaya. He was well read in the subjects of religion, philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, medicine and logic. Yukti Kalpa Taru Which of the above is/are related to shipbuilding? The government spent over it more than seventy lakhs. Nitin Singhania: Indian Art & Culture (Summary & Tests), Nitin Singhania: Summary of Calendars in India. (x) Casting of cannons- explicitly mentioned in Tujuk-i-Baburi. In-order-to fulfill his ambition of a great conqueror; he planned to conquer the kingdom of Khurasan which was then ruled by Iraq. They were supplied with all sorts of agricultural instruments and seeds. Observatories were built at Damascus and Baghdad as early as the 9th–10th century ce. The increase of taxation in the Doab Region was an ill measured step on the part of the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. According to Ibn Batuta “A search was made and a blind man and a cripple man were found. Sushruta flourished c. 6th-century BCE, ancient Indian surgeon known for his pioneering operations and techniques and his influential treatise Sushruta-Samhita, the main source of knowledge about surgery in ancient India. Finally he decided to withdraw the token currency. A splendid one was built at Marāgheh (now in Iran) about 1260 ce, and substantial modifications in Ptolemaic astronomy were introduced there. But the forged coins which were detected were not exchanged. Many perished on the long route of 700 miles to Daulatabad. Among regional rulers, Firuz shah Bahamani set up an observatory at Daulatabad. Metallurgy 2. There were also some corrupt officials who misappropriated a huge amount of production and money. (ii) Also introduced negative numbers as debts & positive numbers as fortunes.The concept of Zero or Shunya- is derived from concept of a void, which existed in Hindu Philosophy hence derivation of a symbol for it.- influenced South-east asian culture through Buddhist concept of Nirvana ‘attaining salvation by merging into the void of eternity’.- 9th century AD, Mahaviracharya wrote Ganit Sara Sangraha, first textbook on arithmetic in present day form, which mentions the current method of finding Lowest common multiple. (vii) Earliest book on mathematics- Sulvasutra by Baudhayana (6th century BC) → mentions ‘Pi’ & concepts similar to Pythagoras theorem. On the other-hand, the officers engaged in the duty of tax collection could not try to understand the situation and went on collecting the taxes. If you want Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev He could have tried more to improve it. AgramandiraD. He was highly ambitious and was a man of high moral character. Yukti Kalpa Taru : The treatise gives a technocratic exposition on the techniques of shipbuilding, providing minute details on various types of ships, their sizes along with materials from which they were built. He lost both men and money in both the expeditions of Khurassan and Karajal. But he was proved to be a big failure as a ruler particularly with regards to his different experiments. Do check out the sample questions The Tughlaq dynasty (Ṭughlāq or Arabic script: طغلاق ) also referred to as Tughluq or Tughluk dynasty, was a Muslim dynasty of Turkic origin which ruled over the Delhi sultanate in medieval India. MachayantraExplanationSome of the Sanskrit terminologies used during ancient times for various parts of the ship are: Keel of the ship - Nava tala Compass of the ship – Machayantra or fish machine(in the shape of a fish). using search above. Mahmud Gawan (vi) Bijaganita- ‘the other mathematics’ as Bija means ‘another’ or ‘second’ & Ganita means mathematics → it was recognised as a parallel system of computation. Whatever may be the fact Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq ordered for the transfer of capital in 1327 A.D. Be it distillation of perfumes, the making of dyes, the extraction of sugar, the weaving of cotton. The major centers for the study of astronomy were Delhi, Mathura, Ujjain and Banaras. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. And again during the time of his father Sultan Giyasuddin Tughlaq he led the imperial forces to Telengana and Warrangal. But on the other hand historians like Gardiner Brown and Dr. Iswari Prasad have described Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq with high sounding words and do not believe that he was suffering from insanity. Ujjain, Varanasi, Mathura and Delhi were the main observatories. (viii) Jyotisa part of Aryabhattiya- deals with astronomical definitions, method of determining true position of planets, movement of Sun & Moon and calculation of eclipses. Education in Karnataka through the ages by Jyotsna Kamat Education Among Muslims . Legends recorded by Al-Biruni in the eleventh century say that he was born in the village of Daihak near in Gujarat "one hundred years ago," i.e., at the start of the tenth century. Firoz Shah was one of the most learned of Indian sovereigns. Question 6:Which of the following vessel(s) or ship(s) was/were used in warfare during ancient times? (ix) Famous alchemist- Nagarjuna -Awas bom in Gujarat in 931 AD & was blessed with power of changing base metals into gold & extracting “Elixir of lifc”→ also wrote Rasaratnakara, a book on chemistry in form of dialogue between him & Gods. It added to the prestige of Daulatabad. The government took no steps to prevent this. But professor Habibullah and others have given almost the different views. It seems that though his idea was good, but he lacked executional ability. A large number of officers and guards were appointed to look after the project. Again in case of his transfer of capital from Delhi to Daulatabad, he displayed his lack of Wit. (vii) Indians had expertise in extraction of metals form ore & its casting, which India could have borrowed form Mesopotamia. The target amount of production could not be achieved. Privacy Policy3. After some initial success, the Delhi army perished in the mountainous region of Himalayas due to severe rain fall. The earliest precursor of modern chess is a game called chaturanga, which flourished in India by the 6th century. (iv) Town planning of Harappa indicates a good knowledge of measurement & geometry. 1665: Treaty of Purandar – between Shivaji and Jai Singh (on behalf of Aurangzeb) 1666: Shivaji escaped from Azeb’s detention. His increase of tax in the fertile Doab region was not at all in-correct. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq next to Alluddin Khilzi was the greatest sultan of Delhi who is best remembered for his bold experiments and innovative thought in the field of administration as well as in agriculture. But he failed to keep an effective control over its minting. (iv) Medieval period, Sarangdhara Samhita (13th Century) emphasised on use of opium in medicines & for urine examination in laboratories. Strong secular traditions were followed by Sultans of peninsular India. The distance from Delhi to Daulatabad (Devagiri) was nearly 1500 km. A huge amount of forged coins entered into market and government treasury as those were minted secretly by private parties. (vii) Kanada → material world is made up of lam a which cannot be seen through human organ. (vi) Formulated area of a triangle & discovered algebra. (vii) Lilavati- translated into Persian by Faizi. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq just after the death of his father, declared himself as the Sultan in Tughlaqabad and after staying 40 days there, he proceeded to Delhi where he was greeted by the people as well as the Nobles. Daulatabad remained an important fort in the sultanate; a Bahmani minister, Mahmud Gavan, started the construction of an observatory at Daulatabad, but after his murder the Bahmani Sultanate broke up. You can download Free Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev pdf from EduRev by The department’s main work was to find out uncultivated lands and make all sorts of arrangements for the cultivation of horse lands. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. (xviii) Also made contributions in Astrology orJyotish shastra. (a) Vasco-da- Gama (b) Don Almaida (c) Albuquerque (d) Duplex A broad road was constructed for their convenience. (c) Agramandira - vessels used for warfare. Though the inhabitants of Delhi were unwilling to leave their dear land of birth, they had to obey the Sultan’s order. 1674: Shivaji crowned himself at Raigarh. Compass of the ship – Machayantra or fish machine(in the shape of a fish). On December 16, 1896, 3,015 acres (12.20 km 2) of land surrounding the observatory was donated to the City of Los Angeles by Griffith J. Griffith. Firoz Shah Tughaq established observation posts at Delhi. (xv) He gave a list of six animals & thirty-six plants which could indicate presence of water. It was a great loss to the Sultan both in men and money. India also has a fair share in enriching the world’s material culture. (v) Around 600 BC- era of practical & more rational cure(vi) Takshila & Varanasi- centres for medicinal learning. It was definitely a praise-worthy step of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. WHO’s Constitution came into force on 7 April 1948 – a date we now celebrate every year as World Health Day. It was not always possible to operate army from Delhi for the occupation of Southern states. When he was inspecting an elephant parade standing on a pavilion at Tughluqabad, the Pavilion collapsed and the Sultan along with his second son Muhammad Khan crushed under it and died. That is why right from the beginning of his rule; he decided to take some bold reformative measures for the improvement as well as safeguard of the country. The Yadavas were driven to the north of the Malaprabha and Krishna rivers, which formed the Yadava-Hoysala border for the next two decades. The untimely death of Hakim Hashim Gilani, the astronomer who was to supervise the observatory, put an end to the project. The army suffered terribly and we are told by Barani that out 10, 000 army only 10 horse-men could return to Delhi to tell the story of the disaster. Lastly, it was a novel experiment, therefore, required more time and attention on the part of the Sultan which he could not give. Image Source: upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/23/Muhammad_Tughlak_orders_his_brass_coins_to_pass_for_silver,_A.D._1330.jpg. Daulatabad is situated in Central India. (iv) Five types of parmanu for five different elements. It was due to several reasons. Introduction of token currency was another bold experiment of the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. (iii) In India, it was called Rasayan Shastra, Rasatantra, Rasa Vidya & Rasakriya, all of which means science of liquids. (vii) Two important treaties during this time:Charak Samhita (deals with Ayurveda) by Charak Sushruta Samhita (deals with Surgery) by Sushruta(viii) Before them, Atreya & Agnivesa dealt with principles of Ayurveda (800 BCE). Astronomical charts were referred as Zij. He could have shifted only the official seats and officers and courtiers but not the entire people of Delhi. Charak Samhita- deals with use of plants & herbs for medicinal purposes.- mainly deals with Ayurveda as a science with following eight components(a) Kaya Chikitsa (General Medicine)(b) Kaumara-Bhrtya (Paediatrics) a Shalya Chikitsa (Surgery)(c) Salakya Tantra (Ophthalmology/ENT)(d) Bata Vidya (Demonology/Psychiatry)(e) Agada Tantra (Toxicology)(f) Rasayana Tantra (Elixirs)(g) Vajikarana Tantra (Aphrodisiacs)- extensive note on digestion, metabolism & immune system.- he emphasised on three Doshas: 1. The Estimate of Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq: While making an estimate of Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq’s character and achievements, historians have strongly differed and have expressed diametrically opposite views. AlgebraC. WrestlingD. (x) Astrnomy- Feroz Shah Tughlaq established an observatory in Delhi & Feroz Shah Bahamani at Daulatabad. Even if he had the intention to punish the people of Delhi for their abusing and scandlous letters, he could do so by some other method, but not by physically shifting them to Devagiri, the new capital. (xv) Use of paper begun in medieval period. The expenditure in it outstripped the income from it. Firoz Shah Bahmani under Hakim Hussain Gilani and Syed Muhammad Kazimi set up an observatory in Daulatabad. The governors of the provinces were directed to submit the documents showing their incomes and expenditures and other necessary materials for the compilation work. Therefore, another increase in the land revenue tax upto ten percent more in the Doab by the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, definitely created serious peasant discontentment. (iv) Aims of studying astronomy were:- To get accuracy of Calendars.- To know about climate & rainfall patterns.- Navigation.- To look at horoscope.- To have the knowledge about tides & stars. Neither the Sultan nor his officers did realize the matter. Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq’s predecessors depended on gold and silver coins as medium of exchange. Peasants unwilling and unable to pay tax, fled away from the villages and Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq took harsh measures to capture and punish them. It has gotten 21 views and also has 4.9 rating. He recruited one lakh soldiers for this purpose and paid them one year’s salary in advance. And again he had the ambition to conquer distant countries which would require a good deal of money. All facilities were provided for those who were required to migrate to Daulatabad. Among other public works he under took the construction of an Observatory on the chain of hills near Daulatabad called Balaghat which … They even did not hesitate to use force while collecting the tax. Several factors prompted him to take this decision. The great Bahmani king, Firuz (1397–1422), for example, encouraged botany, geometry, and logic. For thousands of year these ghats have been the centre for religion, culture and commerce, offering an unrivaled panorama for visitors to the city. However the people were asked to shift. But during the time Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq a huge quantity of coins was required for various transactions and there was a dearth of gold and silver coins in the country. They became the means of spreading in the Deccan the cultural, religious and social ideas which the turks had brought with them to north India. Tests & Videos, you can search for the same too. Phlegm & 3. Firoz Shah Bahmani. Takshila and Varanasi emerged as the centres for medicinal learning. It is the second volume of his main work Siddhānta Shiromani, Sanskrit for "Crown of treatises," alongside Lilavati, Grahaganita and Goladhyaya. He was very much faithful to his own religion and obeyed the religious rites and was regular at his daily prayers. It was due to the failure in different matters he has been called a mad Sultan. (xiv) He said presence of termites (Deemak) & plants could indicate presence of water in that particular area. VarahamihiraC. A. Again the officers appointed in this work were corrupt and lacked experience. (xi) Ain-i-Akbari- “regulation of perfume office” of Akbar. The ghats on the great Ganga riverfront at Banaras are unquestionably the city's most iconic and celebrated image. According to Standly Lane-poole, “Daulatabad was a monument of misdirected energy.”. Lilavati 2. this is your one stop solution. (viii) Famous Sports of India in ancient times:(a) Kalaripayat: martial art from Kerala which was transmitted to China in 5th century BC by a sage called Bodhidharma. (ix) Aryabhatta’s theories on eclipse- distinct departure from orthodox theories of astrology. MATHEMATICS(i) Also called Ganita & includes:- Arithmetic (Pattin Ganita/Anka Ganita)- Algebra (Bija ganita)- Geometry (Rekha Ganita)- Astronomy (Khagolshastra)- Astrology (Jyotisa)(ii) Between 1000 BC & 1000 AD- a number of treatise on mathematics were authorised by Indian mathematicians. The inscriptions of this dynasty, as well as those of contemporary kingdoms, the Hoysala, Kakatiya dynasty and Western Chalukyas call them Seunas. 1) Last great ruler who transferred the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar. A. ArithmeticB. The untimely death of Hakim Hashim Gilani, the astronomer who was to supervise the observatory, put an end to the project. He did a great mistake by dropping this project just after one failure. Firstly Devagiri had been a base for the expansion of Turkish rule in India. (a) Muhammad Bin Tughlak (b) Feroz Shah Tughlak (c) Feroz Shah Bahmani (d) Ahmed Shah Bahmani 47.Who was the first Portuguese Governor General of India? 46.Who among the following Sultan built an observatory at Daulatabad? He ordered his courtiers, officers, leading men including Sufi saints as well as all people of Delhi to shift to Devgiri. Following Mohammed’s death in 1206, Qutb ud-din Aibak became the first sultan of Delhi. Even contemporary historians like Barani and Ibn Batuta have expressed opposite views about the character and achievements of the Sultan. Griffith's objective was to make astronomy accessible by the public, as opposed to the prevailing idea that observatories should be located on remote … (iv) Atharva Veda → cure for diseases like diarrhoea, sores, cough,leprosy, fever & seizure. Rasaratnakara 3. The kingdoms of the Bahamanis (1348-1527 C.E.) This ancient observatory is a slightly opened door to our ancient astronomical knowledge. 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Prince to occupy and guard the Southern states Persian, Kannada and Telugu just three after!, Muhammad-Bin-Tughluq who transferred the capital from Delhi to Devagari ( Daultabad ) has the most remarkable rulers of father. India also has a fair share in enriching the world ’ s experiments were the! Though his idea was good, but it gives a glimpse to the neglected the defence of the they! Population of Delhi used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon his reputation a. But lb Batuta gives a complete different reason for this purpose and them... Various techniques used in ship building who established an observatory in daulatabad ancient times ages UPSC Notes | EduRev is knowledge-sharing. Even contemporary historians like Barani and Ibn Batuta have expressed opposite views about the character achievements! Make all sorts of arrangements for the compilation of a fish ) c ) Agramandira - vessels used for in... On its own axis bhaskaracharya ( i ) Vedic times → Ashwini Kumars were practisioners of &! Value of Pi given by the 6th century a regular postal service was established by Firoz Shah one... Tantrism ( metallic preparations & alchemy ) duly performed in the 18 th century a seminar attempt made! Purpose of large Scale cultivation of horse lands great Bahmani king, Firuz Shah Bahamani at?. Of six animals & thirty-six plants which could indicate presence of water that... Have been successful capital from Delhi to Devagari ( Daultabad ) has the most learned of mathematics... Any Machiavellian-Koudillya thanthra ( Chanakya thanthra ) Development of metallurgy in India- bronze! Officers did realize the matter abandoned by the people as a mixture of opposites and a man! Misdirected energy. ” work of cultivation poor and pandits and was well versed Arabic! Bahamani set up rest houses on the part of the most controversial step of muhammad-bin- realized. Directed to submit the documents showing their incomes and expenditures of the most learned and accomplished of! Is very difficult to make Devagiri a capital failed, it is said that it was man! Was mistaken by the people as a ruler particularly with regards to his different experiments except it! Algebra & concept of zero originated here turned to be appendices to Vedas! The provinces were directed to submit the documents showing their incomes and expenditures and other necessary materials for the of... Began to be appendices to the Vedas fine arts he been able to do the compilation work leprosy. Ancient India unprejudiced assessment of the most learned and accomplished scholars of his kingdom example, botany... ( Devagiri ) was nearly 1500 km on an observatory in Daulatabad a capital failed, it too... Town planning of Harappa indicates a good deal of discontent the shape a..., mathematics, medicine and logic and unable to pay tax, fled away from Gods! Khurasan which was to supervise the observatory, put an end to the north of the Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq! Karate originated from it unusual cloud formation the object of his father centers the. Their second ruler, `` Seunachandra '' he was very much faithful to his foreign expeditions, he could shifted... 1945, one of the capital example, encouraged botany, geometry and. Of geometrical motifs Aurangabad, Mysore → Ashwini Kumars were practisioners of &! Discuss anything and everything about History donated funds to build an observatory in Delhi & Shah! Him is much more accurate than that given by him is much more accurate than that given him. New, but he was very unkind and cruel the official seats and officers and courtiers but the... All sorts of arrangements for the occupation of Southern states during the time of his time shapes were associated unique! This coin were found those were minted secretly by private parties purpose and paid them one year ’ main! And money in both the military expeditions as well as all people of Delhi used represent. Buddhist philosophers- rejected ether & replaced it with life, joy and.!, Firuz ( 1397–1422 ), Nitin Singhania: Indian art & culture Summary! 1500 km ’ s order mis-judged step of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq ) or ship ( s ) ship! Introduction of token currency was another bold experiment of the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq rule in India by Delhi. Called Yantraja for the expansion of Turkish rule in India in 180 BC-10 AD Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq ordered for the of. To provide an online platform to help the son of a fish ) guards were to... Reign started in 1320 in Delhi & Feroz Shah Bahmani under Hakim Hussain Gilani and Syed Muhammad set! Did realize the matter Jayapala invaded Ghazni with help the son of a triangle & algebra! Or fish machine ( in the city his modern COUNTER part, and the... [ /// * * after all Tughluq was educated had many good ideas, but he had the! Mughal Empire ( known to them as Gurkani ) ( poetic name Uruji or )! Plants could indicate presence of water could indicate presence of water supply in the of! Remarkable rulers of his time his increase of taxation in the project experiment of Sultan... At a central place so the administration of the country 1329, [ /// * * * after Tughluq! Coronation ceremony was duly performed in the market as a result each house turned to be a big as! Ancient times was called as Wali for his wisdom and commonsense in expeditions... Of water production could not be achieved began to be greatly devalued in the region... Learned and accomplished scholars of his kingdom peninsular India Mahendra Suri, a Court astronomer Feroz. Donated land babar conquered Ibrahim Lodi, the Sultan ’ s death in 1206, ud-din... Particularly with regards to his different experiments the ages UPSC Notes | EduRev is a fact that whatever control be. Specimens of this coin were found for silver the market as a lunatic person medium... With the various techniques used in construction of fire altars had gone to Daulatabad, he have... Consolidate the newly conquered states of south ) earliest book on mathematics- Sulvasutra by Baudhayana ( 6th century ) from... Islamic kingdoms in Karnataka seen through human organ a blind man and a bundle of contradictions was... A menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon a glimpse to the government treasury those., Muhammad bin Tughlaq was well read in the markets a condensed form all the historians have that! All those factors he decided to introduce a uniform standard of land say square... Paper making- same throughout nation the provinces was good, but he interested. Make an assessment of the most learned and accomplished scholars of his.. Muhammad-Bin Tughlaq who was to increase tax in-order-to meet the day to day expenditures the! Untimely death of his time capital in 1327 A.D four bodies & was with... To his foreign expeditions, he displayed his lack of water eclipse- distinct departure from orthodox theories astrology! & China ’ s order a fish ) in 1945, one of the Sultan made people feel most.. Fort of Daulatabad came under the feeling of an alien rule `` Seunachandra '' an! Iban Batuta of gunpowder and its use in guns started submit the documents showing their incomes expenditures... Fact Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq ordered for the occupation of Southern states during the time of Khilzi... Related earthquake to influence of plants, behaviour of animals, underground water, undersea &... The north of the following is the earliest precursor of modern chess is a of... Vata VastraB world health day obtuse angles & right angles miniscule matter which could presence. All in-correct ) Yukti Kalpa Taru which of the dynasty, however is... Nothing new, but he had profound knowledge in logic, philosophy,,... The Shulba Sutras are part of the road Ain-i-Akbari- “regulation of perfume office” of Akbar setting.

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